Ok, I'll take a stab. I'm going off the top of my head so be gentle if I have my facts wrong....
As someone mentioned the biggest thing that sets these guitars apart is the aluminum neck - an the neck is different than a kramer or one of the modern remakes, because the pickups and bridge are mounted to it. The necks are supposed to be a pain to keep in tune. I've never played one, but I've heard as they warm up from body heat you have to retune them. You can get a pretty good look at one here (and make a bid on one of Jerry's backups if you have some deep pockets - https://www.gottahaverockandroll.com/Je ... Kr6GEMbWw_
The pickups are also fairly unique from what I understand. I don't know my ass from an apple when it comes from pickups, but people who do know what they're talking about have said the closest pickup to a Bean in construction style was an old Fender Wide Range Humbucker (not the modern reissues). They're not P90s. There is a dude out there who makes a pretty good replica now - I mean a really good replica, it's scary how spot on it is.
I don't know how many Beans Jerry owned, but he played two "styles" the TB1000A (2 pickup) from the Fall of 75 to Summer of 76 and then the TB500 from Summer of 76 to Fall of 77. The TB500 was his third most played guitar, behind Wolf and Tiger, and played the iconic Spring '77 shows like Cornell. It was also the first guitar with an OBEL.
Bean sounds great and is a unique instrument. I like hearing people's stories who have played them. Some people I've talked to love them, other people hate them.